Home to the world’s first civilization, Egypt, thought to have begun hundreds of thousands of years ago. North African countries are comprised of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and Western Sahara.

Frank Boulware, Sr. Legacy Scholarship



North Africa

Architecture: There are the engineering feats of the Egyptians: the bafflingly raised obelisks and the more than 80 pyramids. The largest of the pyramids covers 13 acres and is made of 2.25 million blocks of stone.

Astronomy & Mathematics: Egyptians charted the movement of the sun and constellations and the cycles of the moon. They divided the year into 12 parts and developed a yearlong calendar system containing 365 ¼ days. Clocks were made with moving water and sundial-like clocks were used. Many modern high-school-level concepts in mathematics first were developed in Africa, as was the first method of counting. More than 35,000 years ago, Egyptians scripted textbooks about math that included division and multiplication of fractions and geometric formulas to calculate the area and volume of shapes. Distances and angles were calculated, algebraic equations were solved and mathematically based predictions were made of the size of floods of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians considered a circle to have 360 degrees and estimated Π at 3.16.


Amanirenas:  Kandake (Queen) of Kush (Egypt) led her army against the Romans, who took over Egypt after Cleopatra VII's death. The war lasted for 5 years and battles went back and forth until a peace treaty was finally reached. Queen Amanirenas is remembered as being brave, courageous and fearless.


Hannibal: Hannibal, ruler of Cathage, was one of the greatest generals to date.  Carthage is modern-day Tunisia. His tactics are still studied by army leaders all over the world today. He was the best military strategist in history.  His armies included African war elephants and Numidians.  The Numidians were from present day Algeria. Hannibal invaded Italy for 15 years. He also conquered major portions of Spain.

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Created by:

Brandon A. Mashack